Plus Blog

December 19, 2012

Space is three-dimensional ... or is it? When we spoke to theoretical physicist David Berman in October this year we found out that in fact, we are all used to living in a curved, multidimensional universe. And a mathematical argument might just explain how those higher dimensions are hidden from view.



Kaluza, Klein and their story of a fifth dimension — David Berman explains the concept of dimension and how a mathematical idea suggests that we might well live in five of them.


The ten dimensions of string theory — String theory has one very unique consequence that no other theory of physics before has had: it predicts the number of dimensions of space-time. David Berman explains where these other dimensions might be hiding and how we might observe them.


How many dimensions are there? – the podcast — You can listen to an interview with David Berman as he tells us how Kaluza, Klein and their fifth dimension might help us understand the ten dimensions of string theory.



December 18, 2012

The maths of growth is one of the many topics explored on STEM NRICH.

Want to stop your brain from rusting this Christmas? Then visit our sister project NRICH which received a major make-over this year and now has a beautiful new website. NRICH is aimed at students and teachers of maths of all ages and backgrounds. It offers challenging and engaging activities that develop mathematical thinking and problem-solving skills and show rich mathematics in meaningful contexts.

To train your brain have a look at the NRICH advent calendar, which has an activity for every day up to Christmas, or the regular weekly challenge. If you're interested in real-life applications of maths, then visit STEM NRICH which explores the ways in which mathematics, science and technology are linked. And if you're stuck on a problem or have a general maths question you can ask the team at the Ask NRICH forum.

Because life is too short for long division!


December 17, 2012
Daffodils outside the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge.

Daffodils and mathematical art outside the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge.

Time, coffee, something to scribble on and others to chat to — these are the key ingredients necessary for producing first rate mathematics. And they are exactly what the Isaac Newton Institute in Cambridge provides. The Institute runs research programmes on selected themes in the mathematical sciences, with applications in a wide range of science and technology. It's a place where leading mathematicians from around the world can come together for weeks or months at a time to indulge in what they like doing best: thinking about maths and exchanging ideas without the distractions and duties that come with their normal working lives.

The Institute celebrates its 20th birthday this year, having opened in July 1992. We celebrated with a selection of articles exploring some of the research programmes that have been held there. The Institute asked us to produce these articles in 2010 and we were honoured by being afforded this rare glimpse behind its venerable doors. And as you'll see, what starts out as abstract mathematics scribbled on the back of a napkin can have a major impact in the real world.

Happy birthday, Newton Institute!


Building bridges from mathematics to the city — Many people's impression of mathematics is that it is an ancient edifice built on centuries of research. However, modern quantitative finance, an area of mathematics with such a great impact on all our lives, is just a few decades old. The Isaac Newton Institute quickly recognised its importance and has already run two seminal programmes, in 1995 and 2005, supporting research in the field of mathematical finance.


Renewable energy and telecommunications — When the mathematician AK Erlang first used probability theory to model telephone networks in the early twentieth century, he could hardly have imagined that the science he founded would one day help solve a most pressing global problem: how to wean ourselves off fossil fuels and switch to renewable energy sources.


Taming water waves — Few things in nature are as dramatic, and potentially dangerous, as ocean waves. The impact they have on our daily lives extends from shipping to the role they play in driving the global climate. From a theoretical viewpoint water waves pose rich challenges: solutions to the equations that describe fluid motion are elusive, and whether they even exist in the most general case is one of the hardest unanswered questions in mathematics.


Strings, particles and the early Universe — The Strong Fields, Integrability and Strings programme, which took place at the Isaac Newton Institute in 2007, explored an area that would have been close to Isaac Newton's heart: how to unify Einstein's theory of gravity, a continuation of Newton's own work on gravitation, with quantum field theory, which describes the atomic and sub-atomic world, but cannot account for the force of gravity.


From neurobiology to online gaming — Artificial neural networks grew out of researchers' attempts to mimick the human brain. In 1997 the Isaac Newton Institute hosted a landmark research programme in the area. Today, neural networks are able to learn how to perform complex tasks and are crucial in many areas of life, from medicine to the Xbox.


The shape of things to come — Progress in pure mathematics has its own tempo. Major questions may remain open for decades, even centuries, and once an answer has been found, it can take a collaborative effort of many mathematicians in the field to check that it is correct. The New Contexts for Stable Homotopy Theory programme, held at the Institute in 2002, is a prime example of how its research programmes can benefit researchers and its lead to landmark results.


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December 16, 2012
Eights by George Hart

"Eights" by George Hart, featured in this issue of Eureka

Looking for some great Christmas reading? Good news! The annual magazine Eureka has just published its first ever digital issue and to celebrate they have reprinted some of the best articles from past issues featuring authors such as Stephen Hawking, Roger Penrose, John Conway, Stephen Wolfram, Paul Dirac and many others.

You can view Eureka via a free iPad app or download it as a PDF. Happy reading!


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December 15, 2012
Sara Santos

Sara Santos busking on the streets of Krakow.

This summer, while at a conference in Poland, we were lucky enough to watch Sara Santos and her maths buskers perform on the streets of Krakow, handcuffing innocent Krakowians (a punishment for dividing by zero), constructing emergency pentagons, and reading minds. Maths busking is about showing the public the surprising and fascinating side of mathematics through the medium of street performance. Sara Santos is co-founder of Maths Busking, which is both a network of performers and a business delivering training, school and entertainment services. The training sessions are particularly popular amongst teachers, science communicators, and researchers in mathematics and sciences.

If you're interested in maths busking performances or becoming a maths busker yourself, visit the Maths Busking website or listen to our interviews with Sara and other maths buskers in our podcast.


December 14, 2012

Here at Plus we were completely taken by surprise with just how exciting London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games were! Whether it was marvelling at the architecture, developing new strategies or equipment or keeping score, there was an application of maths providing those precious incremental advances that made all the difference. Here are our favourite moments from our Olympic and Paralympic calendars.


Gearing up for gold — Inspired by Sara Storey's phenomenal gold medal we calculate whether we, and our bikes, have what it takes to triumph in our newfound quest for speed!


Racing for new records — Wheelchair racing is one of the most exciting disciplines in the Paralympics. And it's not just a wheel-based equivalent of Olympic racing: John D. Barrow, mathematician, cosmologist and prolific popular science writer, has spotted an important difference.


No limits for Usain — Usain Bolt is determined to beat his record and run the 100m in 9.4 seconds. But what does mathematics have to say about this quest? Is there an ultimate limit which no runner can possibly surpass? If there is one, where would such a limit lie? For instance, is there a sub 9 second record in the offing?


Horses for courses — It's a great day for individual dressage today with the Grand Prix freestyle test taking place in Greenwich Park. It's amazing how those horses can perform elegant and complicated movements without getting their legs in a muddle. Coming to think of it, it's amazing that they can even go through their innate gaits without getting their legs in a muddle, given that there's four of them and they are very long. And what about animals who've got even more legs?


Rowing has its moments — The men's lightweight fours and the women's eights are going to compete for medals today, but are they sitting in the right place? Usually you expect to find rowers positioned in a symmetrical fashion, alternately right-left, right-left as you go from one end of the boat to the other. However, the regularity of the rower's positions hides a significant asymmetry that affects the way the boat will move through the water.

You can find lots more excellent material on the maths behind sports in the MMP Sportal!


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