## Plus Blog

May 22, 2008
Friday, May 23, 2008

### United Kingdom - Nil Points

It is one of my favourite times of year, and I'm not even European.

The Eurovision Song Contest to Australians is a strange mix of bad 80s music, songs about "joy", "love" and "unity", amazingly good-looking hosts, scantily dressed Eastern Europeans and reality TV winners from Western Europe.

But another reason I love it is because it is about politics and maths. For the first time in my life, living in the UK, I get a chance to vote for the winner and watch it live instead of having to ignore radio reports (of course it's all over the news) till the Sydney Sunday evening replay.

The voting of Eurovision is a complex interaction of politics and voting blocks. Each country votes in a popular vote, in which they cannot vote for themselves, and each country has equal voting power. Voting is often based on politics — Cyprus and Greece nearly always exchange votes — and I can remember the days when Ireland and the UK were similarly connected. On the other hand, France does not vote for the UK and the Balkan states have mixed allegiances.

Eurovision is a perfect example of what mathematicians call a complex system. This consists of a group of objects (countries) which interact with each other (by giving each other points for their songs), and this interaction can be tracked over time. A statistical analysis of the system can then give some insight in the nature of the interaction. For example, it can show whether certain countries form cliques that always vote similarly, or whether a country's voting is largely "in tune" with that of the whole group.

Some time ago a team of Oxford scientists performed statistical tests to see whether the voting behaviours of different countries are in some way related. In every statistical test you need a "control experiment" to compare your results to. Suppose, for example, that two countries always seem to vote the same way. Then, before you can deduce that their musical tastes are indeed related, you need to show that the two countries vote the same way significantly more often than would happen in a song contest in which the countries' voting is truly independent. To create such a control experiment, the team simulated a "random song contest", in which each country assigns its points randomly to 10 other countries. They then compared the results of all their tests to the random contest.

One such test involves seeing whether voting relationships between countries persists over time. If, for example, country A gives and/or receives points from another country B over a long period of time, then we can deduce that in some way the musical tastes of the two countries are related. Carrying out the same analysis between country A and all other countries in turn will show whether or not country A is "in tune" with the rest of Europe.

Another test observes the number of countries to which a given country A has awarded points and from which it has also received points. If a country has many such "reciprocal links", then one might deduce that its musical taste harmonises well with that of Europe in general.

The remaining tests were devised to identify cliques of countries whose voting behaviour is correlated. For example, the team checked to see whether two countries that have both received and/or awarded points to a third country are likely to give or receive points from each other.

And the results of the study? Well, you'll just have to read our Plus article United Kingdom - twelve points for more information on the statistical tests, and don't forget to vote!

posted by westius @ 11:44 AM

May 19, 2008
Tuesday, May 20, 2008

### More movies and maths

Maths in the movies is obviously in vogue these days.

The following video comes from Triple J in Australia, and is a nice summation of how maths has been used as a tool for plot development over the years.

Thanks to Marc Fennell, the host of the show, for the permissions.

posted by westius @ 3:35 PM

May 18, 2008
Monday, May 19, 2008

### The return of More or Less

Betting on science, The Simpsons and how maths keeps aircraft apart — More or Less returns to BBC Radio 4 from 4.30pm on Mondays.

Among the stories featured in the latest series presented by Tim Harford will be the tax-free phenomenon of spread betting, how some scientists are making money by betting on their own theories being proven correct, and how air traffic scheduling relies on mathematics to function and bring aircraft safely into land.

Later in the series will be a round-table discussion featuring the Rt Hon Charles Clarke MP, Vince Cable MP and Fraser Nelson, political editor of The Spectator, about how numbers influence politics and policies and how they are often the most important part of the story. There will also be an exclusive interview with Al Jean, head writer and executive producer of The Simpsons and Harvard maths graduate, on his love of numbers and how to constantly get good numeracy jokes into the world's longest running sitcom.

See the More or Less website for more information.

posted by westius @ 10:56 AM

May 18, 2008
Monday, May 19, 2008

Clifton Callender from Florida State University, Ian Quinn from Yale University and Dmitri Tymoczko from Princeton University — all professors of music — have developed a new method of analysing music called "geometrical music theory" that is based on the mathematics entangled in the structure of music.

Labels:

posted by westius @ 10:36 AM

May 14, 2008
Thursday, May 15, 2008

From the complexity of the snowflake, to the London tube map and the spiralling Andromeda galaxy, imagery has always been a vitally important ingredient of science. Plus talks to John Barrow, professor of mathematics at Cambridge University and author of the new book Cosmic Imagery, about the images that have changed science, and how we have viewed science, over the centuries.

Hear more...

This podcast is also available in an enhanced version, which shows all the images mentioned in this podcast as you listen. You can view the enhanced podcast in your browser, or download the MP4 file to to your computer and for playing on your MP4 player (for example iPod).

Labels:

posted by Plus @ 3:53 PM