What is turbulence? How does it form? In this issue of Plus we will observe turbulence mathematically using computer simulations. We also explore the work and life of Daniel Bernouli, who discovered the fluid equation and the method of measuring blood pressure. Plus we'll have a look at a mathematical mystery - hailstones sequences.
Have you ever been in an aeroplane on a smooth flight when suddenly the plane bumps up and down for a short time as it goes through turbulent air? The study of turbulence is used to understand a range of phenomena from the simple squirting of a jet of water to the activity of the sun.
Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) discovered the relationship between the density of a fluid in a pipe, the speed it is travelling in the pipe and the pressure exerted by the fluid against the walls of the pipe. This is the story of what happened.