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http://plus.maths.org/content/issue/issue/13
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http://plus.maths.org/content/issue13
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<span class="date-display-single">January 2001</span> </div>
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<p>Why did no-one dare make a move during the Cuban Missile Crisis? What is game theory and how does it explain stalemates? And why can't humans walk as quickly as they can run? This issue explains it all!</p>
13indexTue, 01 Jun 2010 12:22:40 +0000plusadmin5202 at http://plus.maths.org/contentGame theory and the Cuban missile crisis
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Steven J. Brams </div>
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<b>Steven J. Brams</b> uses the Cuban missile crisis to illustrate the Theory of Moves, which is not just an abstract mathematical model but one that mirrors the real-life choices, and underlying thinking, of flesh-and-blood decision makers. </div>
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<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/game-theory-and-cuban-missile-crisis" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/game-theory-and-cuban-missile-crisis#comments13chickengame theorymixed strategynash equilibriumstable strategystrategytheory of movesMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2174 at http://plus.maths.org/content'For All Practical Purposes'
http://plus.maths.org/content/all-practical-purposes
<div class="pub_date">January 2001</div>
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<h2>For all Practical Purposes: Mathematical Literacy in Today's World</h2>
<p>By COMAP<br />
Reviewed by John Barrow (Director of the <a href="http://mmp.maths.org/">Millennium Mathematics Project</a>)</p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/all-practical-purposes" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/all-practical-purposes#comments13book reviewMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin3292 at http://plus.maths.org/content'The Pleasures of Counting'
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<h2>The Pleasures of Counting</h2>
<p>by Tom Korner<br />
Reviewed by <a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/../../../people/index.html#helen">Helen Joyce</a> (Plus Editorial team)</p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/pleasures-counting" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/pleasures-counting#comments13book reviewMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin3291 at http://plus.maths.org/content'Computers, Ltd.'
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<h2>Computers Ltd.: what they <i>really</i> can't do</h2>
<p>By David Harel<br />
Reviewed by <a href="/people/#mark">Mark Wainwright</a></p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/computers-ltd" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/computers-ltd#comments13book reviewMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin3290 at http://plus.maths.org/contentPuzzle page
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A greek soldier, and a persion soldier walk into a battle... </div>
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<h2>Spies Passing in the Night</h2>
<p>The Persian and Greek armies march along a straight road at (different) constant speeds. They spy on each other by sending scouts back and forth on foot or on horseback. The scouts also travel at constant speeds (not necessarily at the same speed as each other). A traveller is walking at constant speed along the road between the two armies.<div class="field field-type-nodereference field-field-sol-link">
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<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/puzzle-page-3" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/puzzle-page-3#comments13puzzleMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2839 at http://plus.maths.org/contentPlus Magazine
http://plus.maths.org/content/plus-magazine-19
<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/plus-magazine-19" target="_blank">read more</a></p>13editorialMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin5100 at http://plus.maths.org/contentLetters
http://plus.maths.org/content/letters-2
<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/letters-2" target="_blank">read more</a></p>13editorialMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin4921 at http://plus.maths.org/contentOpinion
http://plus.maths.org/content/opinion-0
<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/opinion-0" target="_blank">read more</a></p>13Arrow's theoremeditorialpublic image of mathematicssocial choiceUS Presidential electionsvoting systemsMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin4863 at http://plus.maths.org/contentCareer interview: Science communicator
http://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-science-communicator
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Mike Pearson </div>
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<p><b>Jenni Barker</b> is an astrophysicist. At least, that was the subject of her degree at <a href="http://www.bham.ac.uk/physics/">Birmingham University</a> - but since then she's moved into the realm of communication and journalism where she still finds a use for her scientific and mathematical training. We went to see her at <a href="http://www.nesta.org.uk/flash.html">NESTA's</a> office in
Upper Thames St., in the beautifully renovated Fishmongers Chambers.</p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-science-communicator" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-science-communicator#comments13career interviewHealth & SocietyScience & EngineeringScience journalismMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2398 at http://plus.maths.org/contentGetting the most out of life - Part 2
http://plus.maths.org/content/getting-most-out-life-part-2
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Mark Wainwright </div>
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<p>The idea is this. To start with, you will choose an envelope at random, say by tossing a coin, and look at its contents, which is a cheque for some number - say n. (By randomising like this, you can be sure I haven't subconsciously induced you to prefer one envelope or the other.) You want to make sure that the bigger the number is, the more likely you are to keep it, in other words, the less likely you are to swap.</p>
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<p>The idea is this. To start with, you will choose an envelope at random, say by tossing a coin, and look at its contents, which is a cheque for some number - say <i>n</i>. (By randomising like this, you can be sure I haven't subconsciously induced you to prefer one envelope or the other.) You want to make sure that the bigger the number is, the more likely you are to keep it, in other
words, the less likely you are to swap.</p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/getting-most-out-life-part-2" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/getting-most-out-life-part-2#comments13Mathematical mysteriesMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin4747 at http://plus.maths.org/contentMathematical mysteries: Getting the most out of life - Part 1
http://plus.maths.org/content/mathematical-mysteries-getting-most-out-life-part-1
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Mark Wainwright </div>
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<p>There are many sorts of games played in a "bunco booth", where a trickster or sleight-of-hand expert tries to relieve you of your money by getting you to place bets - on which cup the ball is under, for instance, or where the queen of spades is. Lots of these games can be analysed using probability theory, and it soon becomes obvious that the games are tipped heavily in favour of the trickster!</p>
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<p>There are many sorts of games played in a "bunco booth", where a trickster or sleight-of-hand expert tries to relieve you of your money by getting you to place bets - on which cup the ball is under, for instance, or where the queen of spades is. Lots of these games can be analysed using probability theory, and it soon becomes obvious that the games are tipped heavily in favour of the
trickster! The punter is well advised to steer clear.<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/mathematical-mysteries-getting-most-out-life-part-1" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/mathematical-mysteries-getting-most-out-life-part-1#comments13Mathematical mysteriesMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin4746 at http://plus.maths.org/contentModelling, step by step
http://plus.maths.org/content/modelling-step-step
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R. McNeill Alexander </div>
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Why can't human beings walk as fast as they run? And why do we prefer to break into a run rather than walk above a certain speed? Using mathematical modelling, <b>R. McNeill Alexander</b> finds some answers. </div>
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<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/modelling-step-step" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/modelling-step-step#comments13accelerationbiomechanicskinetic energymathematical modellingpotential energyworkMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2177 at http://plus.maths.org/contentLight attenuation and exponential laws
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Ian Garbett </div>
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Arguably, the exponential function crops up more than any other when using mathematics to describe the physical world. In the first of two articles on physical phenomena which obey exponential laws, <b>Ian Garbett</b> discusses light attenuation - the way in which light decreases in intensity as it passes through a medium. </div>
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<h2>Introduction</h2>
<p>In 1947 a young Bedouin shepherd found some ancient scrolls while investigating a small opening in the cliffs near the western shores of the Dead Sea. Three ancient scrolls were made from leather, wrapped in decayed linen, and were covered in ancient scripts.</p>
<p><img src="/issue13/features/garbett/scrolls.gif" /></p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/light-attenuation-and-exponential-laws" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/light-attenuation-and-exponential-laws#comments13exponential lawLambert Law of Absorptionlight attenuationlimitlogarithmic decaymathematical modellingradiationattenuationMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2176 at http://plus.maths.org/contentPrize specimens
http://plus.maths.org/content/prize-specimens
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Mark Wainwright </div>
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<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="130" height="130" alt="" src="http://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue13/features/eternity/icon.jpg?978307200" /> </div>
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Last October, two mathematicians won £1m when it was revealed that they were the first to solve the Eternity jigsaw puzzle. It had taken them six months and a generous helping of mathematical analysis. <b>Mark Wainwright</b> meets the pair and finds out how they did it. </div>
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<p>Alex Selby and Oliver Riordan, two mathematicians, with the help of a couple of computers, have shared a £1m prize by solving the "Eternity" puzzle. The puzzle was like an enormously difficult jigsaw. There were 209 pieces, all different, but all made from equilateral triangles and half-triangles, as in the example on the left.<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/prize-specimens" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/prize-specimens#comments13bayes theoremcomputer searcheternity gamegrid problemspacking problemsplane geometryprobabilitytilingMon, 01 Jan 2001 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2175 at http://plus.maths.org/content