fair division
http://plus.maths.org/content/taxonomy/term/827
enWhy you shouldn't use a toss for overtime
http://plus.maths.org/content/toss-overtime
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Steven J. Brams and Zeve N. Sanderson </div>
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<p>In soccer a coin toss is used to decide who goes first in a penalty shootout and similarly in American football a coin decides who plays offence in overtime. But is this really fair? This article explores an alternative.</p>
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<p>When a tied game in professional soccer leagues (football in most of the world) goes into overtime in knock-out tournaments or cup competitions, a coin toss is used to determine which team starts a sequence of penalty kicks to break the tie. Similarly, when a tied game goes into overtime in the National Football League (NFL) in the United States, a coin toss is used to determine which team starts as offence and which starts as defence in the overtime period. </p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/toss-overtime" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/toss-overtime#commentsfair divisionmathematics in sportFri, 10 May 2013 07:49:24 +0000mf3445894 at http://plus.maths.org/contentA formula for Europe
http://plus.maths.org/content/formula-europe
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<p>When you try to put democracy into action you quickly run into tricky maths problems. This is what happened to Andrew Duff, rapporteur for the European Constitutional Affairs Committee, who was charged with finding a fair way of allocating seats of the European Parliament to Member States. Wisely, he went to ask the experts: last year he approached mathematicians at the University of Cambridge to help come up with a solution. A committee of mathematicians from all over Europe was promptly formed and today it has published its recommendation.</p>
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<p>When you try to put democracy into action you quickly run into tricky maths problems. This is what happened to <a href="http://www.andrewduff.eu/en/">Andrew Duff</a>, Liberal Democrat MEP for the East of England. In his role as <em>rapporteur</em> for the European Constitutional Affairs Committee, Duff was charged with recommending a fair way of allocating seats of the European Parliament to Member States. Wisely, he went to ask the experts: last year he approached mathematicians at the University of Cambridge to help come up with a solution.<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/formula-europe" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/formula-europe#commentselectionfair divisionThu, 10 Mar 2011 17:01:39 +0000mf3445442 at http://plus.maths.org/contentWhat do you think you're worth?
http://plus.maths.org/content/what-do-you-think-youre-worth
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Steven J. Brams </div>
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Bonuses are a fact of business life. Last year the Guardian newspaper calculated that the cash rewards paid to London's financial chiefs comfortably outstripped the UK's entire transport budget. With such large sums at stake, envy is bound to raise its ugly head, nver a good thing for company morale. So how should you decide who gets how much? <b>Steven J. Brams</b> suggests a method that's not only
fair, but also encourages honesty. </div>
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<div class="pub_date">March 2008</div>
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<p><i>Bonuses are a fact of business life. Last year the <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/aug/28/money.executivepay">Guardian newspaper</a> calculated that the cash rewards paid to London's financial chiefs comfortably outstripped the UK's entire transport budget. With such large sums at stake, envy is bound to raise its ugly head, never a good thing for company morale. So how
should you decide who gets how much? Steven J.<p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/what-do-you-think-youre-worth" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/what-do-you-think-youre-worth#comments46combinatoricsfair divisionSat, 01 Mar 2008 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2322 at http://plus.maths.org/contentBetter ways to cut a cake
http://plus.maths.org/content/better-ways-cut-cake
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The maths of fair division </div>
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<div class="pub_date">06/11/2006</div>
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<p>Think you deserve more?</p><p><a href="http://plus.maths.org/content/better-ways-cut-cake" target="_blank">read more</a></p>http://plus.maths.org/content/better-ways-cut-cake#commentsfair divisionMon, 06 Nov 2006 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2486 at http://plus.maths.org/content