## Articles

**Matthew Keeling**describes some of the mathematical developments that have improved our understanding and predictive ability.

**Ian Garbett**discusses light attenuation - the way in which light decreases in intensity as it passes through a medium.

**Mark Wainwright**meets the pair and finds out how they did it.

**Imre Leader**looks at the colourful world of Ramsey Theory.

**John Webb**takes us through some of the mathematics involved, introducing us to some of the colourful characters who led the way.

Emmy Noether, pioneering female mathematician, died 80 years ago.

**John H. Webb**explains.

**John D. Barrow**explains.