## Plus Blog

July 31, 2018

Plus at the ICM.

The International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) is set to begin today, August 1 2018, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Over the next nine days thousands of mathematicians from all over the world will share their work and also honour some of the best talent in the field. The ICM sees the award of the Fields medals, awarded every four years to up to four mathematicians under the age of 40 and regarded one of the highest honour in mathematics, as well as a range of other highly regarded prizes.

Plus has reported on the last two ICMs (in India and South Korea) and we are very pleased to be present at this one too. Over the next ten days we will bring you up to date news from the congress, starting with the announcement of the prize winners tomorrow. We are very grateful for the generous support of the London Mathematical Society and the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications.

June 14, 2018

Finally the wait is over! The first match of the FIFA World Cup 2018 is just about to kick off in Moscow.

With all the emotion and excitement that is to come, we thought that a little football-related maths might come in handy. What could be more relaxing and intellectually stimulating? From making penalties fairer and taking the perfect free kick, to designing an ideal ball and predicting results using an octopus, it's all there in our collection of football articles. Take your pick!

Making penalties fairer
Is the proposed ABBA rule for penalty shootouts really fairer than the existing rule? Maths shows that it is, and also suggests another, more subtle rule.

Hitting the spot
Where in the goal should you aim a penalty at? A little geometry goes a long way in finding the answer.

How to take the perfect penalty
"It's failure to prepare mentally and failure to take practicing penalties really seriously." This is Plus author Ken Bray's explanation for England's dismal performance in penalty shootouts. Bray, who also wrote the article above, talks some more about penalties in this video.

Blink and you'll miss it: The free kick in football
Free kicks deliver much of the drama in football. But how should strikers approach them and how does the design on the ball impact on its behaviour in flight? Find out more in this article.

When is a goal not a goal?
Remember Frank Lampard's disallowed goal in the 2010 World Cup match against Germany? The ball hit the crossbar, landed well behind the line but then bounced out again. And it all happened too quickly for the ref to spot it was a goal. How these kind of (non)-goals happen and what can we do about them?

A fly walks around a football
What makes a perfect football? It must be round, retain its shape, be bouncy but not too lively and, most importantly, be capable of impressive speeds. We find out that this last point is all down to the ball's surface, the most prized research goal in ball design.

If you can't bend it, model it

Clocking the schedule
The way many football leagues schedule their fixtures can lead to unfair effects — and unsolved maths problems! Dries Goossens, who schedules the Belgian Pro League, explains.

How psychic was Paul?
England's performance in the 2010 World Cup was thankfully overshadowed by the attention given to Paul the octopus, who was reported as making an unbroken series of correct predictions of match winners. But how psychic was Paul, really?

April 5, 2018

Our fellow maths journal Aperiodical is coordinating a distributed Wiki Edit Day on Saturday 12th May (the birthday of mathematician Florence Nightingale). They are inviting as many people as possible to join in, from wherever they are, to edit and improve the presence of female mathematicians on Wikiquote's maths quotes page, and possibly to continue editing elsewhere on Wikimedia.

The editing will happen on Saturday 12th May 2018, from 10am-3pm. Join in by loading a shared Google document from 10am on 12th May, finding things to add (and references), and making edits to the pages. Local editing sessions will be organised in different locations, and details will be shared in the doc, as well as a link to a video Hangout everyone can join in with to discuss edits.

As Florence Nightingale said:

"I attribute my success to this – I never gave or took any excuse."

March 28, 2018

This competition is now closed. The winners have been chosen and will be announced on October 24th, 2018 at Gresham College London

From computer games to smart phones, and from the weather forecast to our solar system — mathematics is essential in describing and understanding the world around us. Have you ever wondered what the world would be like without mathematics?

Our solar system is described by maths. Image: NASA.

Mathematics has been part of human culture for millennia. This competition is your chance to explore how mathematics has developed and achieved its status. Where does mathematics come from? How do we know it's true? What is the contribution of a particular person or culture?

The British Society for the History of Mathematics (BSHM) believes that understanding where mathematics comes from and who has contributed to the development of mathematical ideas is an important part of understanding mathematics today. BSHM (with a little help from us) invites secondary school students to explore this question and communicate their findings for a wide audience.

You could write an article (maximum 1500 words), make a short video (maximum ten minutes) or a multi-media project (maximum ten minutes).

The competition is open to all young people aged 11 to 15 and 16 to 19 who are in secondary education. A number of monetary prizes will be awarded, depending upon the quality and the number of entries. The maximum prize will be £100. Winners to be announced at the BSHM meeting at Birkbeck College on 19th May 2018, and then on Plus.

The deadline for entries is Friday, 4th May 2018. Entries should be submitted electronically using this form. For details on how to enter, rules and guidelines, visit the BSHM website.

March 8, 2018

To celebrate International Women's Day we bring you some of our favourite articles and interviews from the last year that have been written by, about, or with major input from, female mathematicians and physicists. It's been an eventful year no matter how you measure it: from quantum physics to gravitational waves!

Fighting future pandemics Julia Gog, Professor of Mathematical Biology, tells us about an innovative project her team are working on with the BBC, that combines outreach, citizen science and new mathematical research.

Listening for ripples in spacetime — We spoke to Gabriela González Professor of Physics and Astronomy and former Spokesperson of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration about the heroic efforts to detect gravitational waves.

Overbooking: How to avoid plane rage — After the headlines when United Airlines dragged a passenger off an overbooked flight, Christine Currie, an Associate Professor in Operational Research, explained the maths behind overbooking.

The beauty of maths is in the brain of the beholder Josefina Alvarez, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics, told us about a study investigating if the brain perceives mathematical beauty in the same way it perceives beauty in other forms.

Uncovering the mathematics of information Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb told us about the research into the mathematics of information that she and colleagues are conducting at the new Cantab Capital Institute for Mathematics of Information, of which she is the Director.

Quantum device solves very hard problem — We spoke to Natalia Berloff, Professor of Applied Mathematics, about her research on quantum particles that are both light and matter, and how they may help solve infamous NP hard problems.

Remembering Maryam Mirzakhani — The brilliant mathematician and Fields medallist, Maryam Mirzakhani, died in July 2017 at the age of 40. We remembered her work and the impact she had on mathematics.

Women of mathematics — We were thrilled to contribute to the Women of Mathematics photo exhibition when it was shown at the University of Cambridge. We interviewed six brilliant Cambridge mathematicians – Natalia Berloff, Nilanjana Datta, Anne-Christine Davis, Holly Krieger and Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb – about their work and their experience as mathematicians.

On the tiles — And finally Becky Warren, our colleague who runs the brilliant Hands On Maths Roadshow, showed us some of the wonderful puzzles she makes and explained what mathematics has caught her eye.