"What is really needed is a scientific theory which links physiology to speeds. How do oxygen uptake, heart rate and the multifarious factors which contribute to running translate into a runner's speed?"

These areas has been extensively studied for over 40 years.
Lloyd, Cavagna, Keller, di Prampero, Busso, Perronet-Thibeault, Duffield-Dawson, Pugh, Davies, Mureika, Press, McCardle etc.
Morton (2006) reviews over 120 papers in this field.