Permalink Submitted by Hayden Gebhardt on November 20, 2017

Hello,
Background: I am a Sophomore at MIT majoring in Electrical Engineering and Physics.

I am having some difficulty understanding where you make some of your connections, however, I believe I understand the general idea. Here are some of my concerns/reservations about your claims:
1. When you add mass to a black hole, it becomes less dense. Think about two planets colliding (m1,m2); the collision would not produce an object with a radius = r1 +r2. The volume of the object may double, but remember that the volume is determined by the cube of the radius rather than the radius itself, thus, the radius only increases by the cube root of two. In terms of black holes, the density is defined by mass/volume, and mathematics has shown that when you double the mass, the volume increases eightfold (2/(1/4)). An interesting connection can be drawn to further clarify: If you have a black hole with a mass that is 387 million times that of our sun, it would have a density roughly that of water.
2. Where my understanding of your claims diverge is when you refer to the equator of the black hole. For this case we will assume that black holes rotate about the same axis that their former stars did. When defining the components of a black hole, we can identify most things with limits involving infinity and zero. A black hole, as you probably know, is comprised of a singularity, where if we define the black hole on an x-y-z plane, is a vertical limit approaching negative infinity on the z-axis. The point theoretically exists at the end of this theoretical, snow-cone-like shape, and is the source of the immense gravitational pull that black holes are so famously known for. Black holes also have what we call a Schwarzschild radius. We define this as a relationship between C and "R," where "R" is the radius of the black hole where the gravitational force is equal and opposite to the speed of light with respect to R(hat). Before that is the event horizon, the umbra shrouding the interior of the black hole (we can see where the event horizon begins because F of gravity is < C). So, when you mention the black hole's "equator," I assume you're referencing the semi-sphere that we can define mathematically as the event horizon. Reduction in rotational speed exists so long as you have a gravitational force, a velocity of your reference object, and a radius to reference. Centripetal acceleration, which would be used in most cases, can be defined as V^2/R where V (in this case) is C and R is anywhere you want it to be in the black hole. R has a finite distance where C becomes < the force of gravity, as referenced previously, and the point I believe you're referencing is the limit approaching the Schwarzschild radius, but you could also be mentioning either side of the radius (from the top or bottom - think hyperbolic). I suppose this is where I'd ask for clarification.
3. Ice-skaters.
When an ice-skater pulls their arms in, they accelerate centripetally because they decrease their overall radius, thus producing a larger "a." This example helped me understand what you were talking about. Visible electromagnetic radiation is emitted from just outside the event horizon of a black hole, which is easily explained since it doesn't have to overcome the immense escape velocity that dwells in the inner boundaries of the black hole, but what you're asking about is Hawking Radiation, which relies on the fact that black holes have a finite entropy - which is still highly theoretical. Hawking Radiation, since it does not obey the properties confined to the electromagnetic spectrum, could theoretically escape from inside the event horizon, allowing your claim to be valid.
4. Here's the rub...
Hawking Radiation is about as soundly developed as quantum mechanics, and I'm in no position to validate or invalidate cutting-edge claims in that field, and neither is anyone at this point, unfortunately.
5. Rugby
Please excuse my trite response, but my answer as far as the polarity and shape of an angularly accelerating black hole is about as extensive as my knowledge on ancient Greek poetry... if you catch my drift, haha. But given the things we know about physics, objects with mass and gravitational pull attract, and black holes aren't magnetic enough to repel each other. When two black holes collide, they form a quasar, which has the same "anatomical shape," if you will, as a normal black hole. It's vector and scalar values diverge, however (density, mass, volume, etc...). At this point, it is hard to discern how a quasar behaves with respect to Hawking Radiation and I apologize that I cannot help you further.
6. Opinions
I've provided my knowledge, now here are my opinions.
1. I really do like the idea you have with reference to the ice-skater, but I don't know that a black hole behaves the same as normal bodies do, because centripetal acceleration does not yield time dilation, and black holes are theorized to slow time as the distance between a chosen photon and the singularity approaches zero (for more info see the theory of Special Relativity - with respect to black holes, of course).
My suggestion to you is to pursue research on quasars, Hawking Radiation, and the physical forces allowed in the domain of a black hole, as I'm sure professors and scholars who are more well-versed that I could help you a bit more.
2. I'm curious as to what your background is in terms of Physics. Knowing this would allow me to know what theories and concepts you are taking into account when forging your theories, which could also help me - maybe you know way more than I do and I need to catch up!
3. Let me know what you've found out since I posted this comment!

## Re: Rotation of Black holes and would this create a Quasar

Hello,

Background: I am a Sophomore at MIT majoring in Electrical Engineering and Physics.

I am having some difficulty understanding where you make some of your connections, however, I believe I understand the general idea. Here are some of my concerns/reservations about your claims:

1. When you add mass to a black hole, it becomes less dense. Think about two planets colliding (m1,m2); the collision would not produce an object with a radius = r1 +r2. The volume of the object may double, but remember that the volume is determined by the cube of the radius rather than the radius itself, thus, the radius only increases by the cube root of two. In terms of black holes, the density is defined by mass/volume, and mathematics has shown that when you double the mass, the volume increases eightfold (2/(1/4)). An interesting connection can be drawn to further clarify: If you have a black hole with a mass that is 387 million times that of our sun, it would have a density roughly that of water.

2. Where my understanding of your claims diverge is when you refer to the equator of the black hole. For this case we will assume that black holes rotate about the same axis that their former stars did. When defining the components of a black hole, we can identify most things with limits involving infinity and zero. A black hole, as you probably know, is comprised of a singularity, where if we define the black hole on an x-y-z plane, is a vertical limit approaching negative infinity on the z-axis. The point theoretically exists at the end of this theoretical, snow-cone-like shape, and is the source of the immense gravitational pull that black holes are so famously known for. Black holes also have what we call a Schwarzschild radius. We define this as a relationship between C and "R," where "R" is the radius of the black hole where the gravitational force is equal and opposite to the speed of light with respect to R(hat). Before that is the event horizon, the umbra shrouding the interior of the black hole (we can see where the event horizon begins because F of gravity is < C). So, when you mention the black hole's "equator," I assume you're referencing the semi-sphere that we can define mathematically as the event horizon. Reduction in rotational speed exists so long as you have a gravitational force, a velocity of your reference object, and a radius to reference. Centripetal acceleration, which would be used in most cases, can be defined as V^2/R where V (in this case) is C and R is anywhere you want it to be in the black hole. R has a finite distance where C becomes < the force of gravity, as referenced previously, and the point I believe you're referencing is the limit approaching the Schwarzschild radius, but you could also be mentioning either side of the radius (from the top or bottom - think hyperbolic). I suppose this is where I'd ask for clarification.

3. Ice-skaters.

When an ice-skater pulls their arms in, they accelerate centripetally because they decrease their overall radius, thus producing a larger "a." This example helped me understand what you were talking about. Visible electromagnetic radiation is emitted from just outside the event horizon of a black hole, which is easily explained since it doesn't have to overcome the immense escape velocity that dwells in the inner boundaries of the black hole, but what you're asking about is Hawking Radiation, which relies on the fact that black holes have a finite entropy - which is still highly theoretical. Hawking Radiation, since it does not obey the properties confined to the electromagnetic spectrum, could theoretically escape from inside the event horizon, allowing your claim to be valid.

4. Here's the rub...

Hawking Radiation is about as soundly developed as quantum mechanics, and I'm in no position to validate or invalidate cutting-edge claims in that field, and neither is anyone at this point, unfortunately.

5. Rugby

Please excuse my trite response, but my answer as far as the polarity and shape of an angularly accelerating black hole is about as extensive as my knowledge on ancient Greek poetry... if you catch my drift, haha. But given the things we know about physics, objects with mass and gravitational pull attract, and black holes aren't magnetic enough to repel each other. When two black holes collide, they form a quasar, which has the same "anatomical shape," if you will, as a normal black hole. It's vector and scalar values diverge, however (density, mass, volume, etc...). At this point, it is hard to discern how a quasar behaves with respect to Hawking Radiation and I apologize that I cannot help you further.

6. Opinions

I've provided my knowledge, now here are my opinions.

1. I really do like the idea you have with reference to the ice-skater, but I don't know that a black hole behaves the same as normal bodies do, because centripetal acceleration does not yield time dilation, and black holes are theorized to slow time as the distance between a chosen photon and the singularity approaches zero (for more info see the theory of Special Relativity - with respect to black holes, of course).

My suggestion to you is to pursue research on quasars, Hawking Radiation, and the physical forces allowed in the domain of a black hole, as I'm sure professors and scholars who are more well-versed that I could help you a bit more.

2. I'm curious as to what your background is in terms of Physics. Knowing this would allow me to know what theories and concepts you are taking into account when forging your theories, which could also help me - maybe you know way more than I do and I need to catch up!

3. Let me know what you've found out since I posted this comment!