aerodynamics
https://plus.maths.org/content/taxonomy/term/298
enBlink and you'll miss it: The free kick in football (part II)
https://plus.maths.org/content/free-kick-football-blink-and-youll-miss-it-part-ii
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Ken Bray </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/11_jun_2014_-_1212/icon.png?1402485137" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>In the first part of this article we let maths set the scene for a free kick. Now we continue the drama, tracing the trajectory of the ball throughout the milliseconds it takes it to reach the goal line.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>The free kick in football: the referee blows the whistle, the striker begins his run-up and the players in the wall steel themselves against a possible impact. The goalie strains to see his first sight of the ball and the thump as boot meets ball can be heard all over the now-silent ground.</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/free-kick-football-blink-and-youll-miss-it-part-ii" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/free-kick-football-blink-and-youll-miss-it-part-ii#commentsaerodynamicsfootballmathematical modellingmathematics in sportThu, 12 Jun 2014 09:50:31 +0000mf3446113 at https://plus.maths.org/contentSpinning the perfect serve
https://plus.maths.org/content/spinning-perfect-serve
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/4/3_aug_2012_-_1031/icon.jpg?1343986315" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>A new mathematical analysis of how to hit a winning serve shows that spin is the thing. Perhaps there's still time for Murray's coach to include some maths in his preparations for the match today...</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>
<em>It's the last set of the London 2012 singles final. Andy Murray steps up to the baseline to deliver the opening serve. After a few calculations he tosses the ball in the air with supreme confidence. He has maths on his side and it has given him the secret to the perfect serve...
</em></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/spinning-perfect-serve" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/spinning-perfect-serve#commentsaerodynamicsmathematics in sportolympicsFri, 03 Aug 2012 14:14:59 +0000Rachel5759 at https://plus.maths.org/contentOuter space: The answer to runnin' in the wind
https://plus.maths.org/content/outer-space-answer-runnin-wind
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
John D Barrow </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/7_dec_2011_-_1723/icon.jpg?1323278615" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>Runners and cyclists can tolerate heat and cold but the thing they dislike most is wind. They know it produces slower times. Can we show them why?</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rightimage" style="width: 363px;"><img src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2011/wind/sprinter.jpg" alt="sprinter" width="363" height="276" /><p></p></div>
<!-- Image from istockphoto.com -->
<p>Runners and cyclists can tolerate heat and cold but the thing they dislike
most is wind. They know it produces slower lap times on loop courses. Can we show them why?</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/outer-space-answer-runnin-wind" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/outer-space-answer-runnin-wind#commentsaerodynamicsmathematics in sportolympicsouterspaceWed, 14 Dec 2011 16:31:11 +0000mf3445603 at https://plus.maths.org/contentA fly walks round a football
https://plus.maths.org/content/fly-walks-round-football
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Ken Bray </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/4/15_sep_2011_-_2009/icon.jpg?1316113749" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>What makes a perfect football? Anyone who plays or simply watches the game could quickly list the qualities. The ball must be round, retain its shape, be bouncy but not too lively and, most importantly, be capable of impressive speeds. We find out that this last point is all down to the ball's surface, the most prized research goal in ball design.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>
What makes a perfect football? Anyone who plays or simply watches the game could quickly list the qualities. The ball must be perfectly round and retain its shape and internal pressure after a lot of physical abuse. It should be bouncy, but not too lively when kicked or headed and it must not absorb water. And finally it should move about in a pacey manner when passed between the players and be capable of impressive turns of speed for shots at goal.
</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/fly-walks-round-football" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/fly-walks-round-football#commentsaerodynamicsdragEuler's polyhedron formulafootballmathematics in sportolympicsThu, 15 Sep 2011 19:15:14 +0000Rachel5537 at https://plus.maths.org/contentMaking gold for 2012: The podcast
https://plus.maths.org/content/making-gold-2012-podcast
<br><br><div class="rightimage" style="width: 250px;"><img src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/news/2011/sporteng/williams.jpg" alt="Amy Williams" width="250" height="188" /><p>Amy Williams, who won gold at the 2010 Winter Olympics, and her specially designed skeleton bobsled. Image: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Départ_de_skeleton_Amy_Williams.jpg">johnwick04</a>.</p><p><a href='http://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/podcast/sporteng_final.mp3'>Listen to Making gold for 2012</a></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/making-gold-2012-podcast" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/making-gold-2012-podcast#commentsaerodynamicsengineeringfinite elementsmathematics in sportMon, 04 Apr 2011 09:40:41 +0000mf3445461 at https://plus.maths.org/contentMaking gold for 2012
https://plus.maths.org/content/making-gold
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/31_mar_2011_-_1214/icon.jpg?1301570067" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>Last week leading researchers in sports technology met at the Royal Academy of Engineering in London to demonstrate just how far their field has come over recent years. The changes they make to athletes' equipment and clothes may only make a tiny difference to their performance, but once they're added up they can mean the difference between gold and silver.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="packagebacklink">Back to the <a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/ingenious-constructing-our-lives">Constructing our lives package</a></div><br clear="all"><p>Isaac Newton didn't really distinguish between science and his
other great interest, alchemy. So it's only fitting that his laws of
motion are today being used to produce gold. Not from base metals,
but from the effort of Britain's top athletes, backed by teams of
engineers who research, analyse, model and tweak to gain their
athlete the tiny advantage that can make the crucial difference.<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/making-gold" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/making-gold#commentsaerodynamicscomputer programmingcomputer simulationengineeringfinite elementsmathematical modellingmathematics in sportNewtonian mechanicsolympicsFri, 01 Apr 2011 09:00:00 +0000mf3445459 at https://plus.maths.org/contentSupersonic Bloodhound
https://plus.maths.org/content/supersonic-bloodhound
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Ben Evans </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue52/features/evans/icon.jpg?1251759600" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
In 1997 Andy Green was the first to break the sound barrier in his car Thrust SSC, which reached speeds of over 760mph. Now he and his team want to push things even further with a car called Bloodhound, designed to reach the dizzy heights of 1,000mph, about 1.3 times the speed of sound. <b>Ben Evans</b> explains how maths is used to build this car. </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">September 2009</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<br clear="all" />
<div class="packagebacklink">Back to the <a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/ingenious-constructing-our-lives">Constructing our lives package</a></div><br clear="all">
<h3>The land speed record</h3>
<p>The first vehicles that today we might describe as cars were steam powered and used primarily for transporting large heavy loads back in the 18th century. Ever since, engineers have been pushing boundaries to try and get them to go faster.<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/supersonic-bloodhound" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/supersonic-bloodhound#comments52aerodynamicscomputational fluid dynamicsdifferential equationengineeringfinite elementsmathematical modellingmathematics in sportnavier-stokes equationsMon, 31 Aug 2009 23:00:00 +0000plusadmin2368 at https://plus.maths.org/contentCareer interview: The fastest mathematician on Earth
https://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-fastest-mathematician-earth
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue52/interview/icon.jpg?1251759600" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">September 2009</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<!-- FILE: include/rightfig.html -->
<div class="rightimage" style="width: 240px;"><img src="/issue52/interview/Andy_Green.jpg" alt="Andy Green" width="240" height="135" />
<p>Andy Green.</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-fastest-mathematician-earth" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-fastest-mathematician-earth#comments52aerodynamicscareer interviewcomputational fluid dynamicsengineeringfluid dynamicsmathematics in sportnavier-stokes equationsScience & EngineeringSportMon, 31 Aug 2009 23:00:00 +0000plusadmin2449 at https://plus.maths.org/contentCareer interview: Systems engineer
https://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-systems-engineer
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-label">author: </div>
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Marianne Freiberger </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue48/interview/icon.jpg?1220223600" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">September 2008</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<!-- #include virtual="../../include/rightfig.html" -->
<div style="position: relative; left: 50%; width: 70%"><font size="2"><i>Back to the <a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/ingenious-constructing-our-lives">Constructing our lives package</a></i></font></div><br clear="all">
<p><i>A version of this interview is also available as a <a href="/podcasts/PlusCareersPodcastSep08.mp3">podcast</a>.</i></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-systems-engineer" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/career-interview-systems-engineer#comments48aerodynamicscareer interviewdifferential equationellipseengineeringheat diffusion equationKepler's three laws of planetary motionmathematical modellingpartial differential equationphysicssatelliteScience & Engineeringspace explorationstatisticsuncertaintySun, 31 Aug 2008 23:00:00 +0000plusadmin2437 at https://plus.maths.org/contentMaths on a plane
https://plus.maths.org/content/maths-plane
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Phil Trinh </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue47/features/trinh/icon.jpg?1212274800" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<b>Phil Trinh</b> discovers how maths helps solve the mysteries of flight and love. </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">June 2008</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<br clear="all" />
<div style="position: relative; left: 50%; width: 70%"><font size="2"><i>Back to the <a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/ingenious-constructing-our-lives">Constructing our lives package</a></font>></i></div><br clear="all">
<p><i>This article is the winner of the university student category of the <a href="/issue47/winners.html#schools">Plus new writers award 2008</a>.</i></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/maths-plane" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/maths-plane#commentsaerodynamicsnavier-stokes equationsNewtonian mechanicsPlus new writers award 2008Sat, 31 May 2008 23:00:00 +0000plusadmin2338 at https://plus.maths.org/contentIf you can't bend it, model it!
https://plus.maths.org/content/if-you-cant-bend-it-model-it
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Ken Bray </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue40/features/bray/icon.jpg?1157065200" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Learn about the aerodynamics of footballs and perfect your free kick. </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">September 2006</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<br clear="all" />
<p>Ball games have universal appeal because of their basic simplicity. For many years (and for many people still), the pleasure lay in simply kicking a ball as fast as possible or striking it sweetly with a bat, racket or club.<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/if-you-cant-bend-it-model-it" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/if-you-cant-bend-it-model-it#comments40aerodynamicsdifferential equationfootballmathematics in sportnavier-stokes equationsThu, 31 Aug 2006 23:00:00 +0000plusadmin2287 at https://plus.maths.org/contentHow maths can make you rich and famous: Part II
https://plus.maths.org/content/how-maths-can-make-you-rich-and-famous-part-ii
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Chris Budd </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/issue25/features/budd/icon.jpg?1051743600" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
One million dollars is waiting to be won by anyone who can solve one of the grand mathematical challenges of the 21st century. In the second of two articles, Chris Budd looks at the well-posedness of the <b>Navier-Stokes equations</b>. </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">May 2003</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<br clear="all" />
<!-- no longer used -->
<h2>A brief history of problem-solving</h2>
<p>Despite the impression given by many textbooks, teachers and internet articles, we understand much less about mathematics than is commonly thought. In fact, maths is littered with problems that we cannot solve.<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/how-maths-can-make-you-rich-and-famous-part-ii" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/how-maths-can-make-you-rich-and-famous-part-ii#comments25aerodynamicsangle trisectioncircle-squaringClay Institute Millennium Prize Problemsdoubling the cubeFermat's Last Theoremfluid mechanicshilbert problemsmathematical modellingnavier-stokes equationsWed, 30 Apr 2003 23:00:00 +0000plusadmin2223 at https://plus.maths.org/contentUnderstanding turbulence
https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-turbulence
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/1/12_dec_2012_-_1223/understanding-turbulence.jpeg?1355314992" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Have you ever been in an aeroplane on a smooth flight when suddenly the plane bumps up and down for a short time as it goes through turbulent air? The study of turbulence is used to understand a range of phenomena from the simple squirting of a jet of water to the activity of the sun. </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">January 1997</div>
<!-- plusimport --><br clear="all"></br>
<p><b>Aircraft turbulence is just one of the phenomena that Fluid Dynamics seeks to explain. By solving suitable equations, mathematicians can create computer simulations of observed cases of turbulence.</b></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-turbulence" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-turbulence#comments1aerodynamicsbernoulli equationcomputer simulationliftnavier-stokes equationsturbulencevectorWed, 01 Jan 1997 00:00:00 +0000plusadmin2157 at https://plus.maths.org/content