statistics
https://plus.maths.org/content/taxonomy/term/705
enSexual statistics: The podcast
https://plus.maths.org/content/sexual-statistics-podcast
<div class="rightimage" style="width: 150px;"><img src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2015/sex/cover.png" width="150" height="239" alt="Book cover"/></div>
<p>Every day we are bombarded with statistics about sex. How many times we think of it a day, how many times we do it, and with how many people. But how do we know which of those numbers can be believed? </p><p><a href='http://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2015/sex/david_s_audio.mp3'>Listen to our interview with David Spiegelhalter</a></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/sexual-statistics-podcast" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/sexual-statistics-podcast#commentssocial statisticsstatisticsThu, 02 Apr 2015 12:24:26 +0000mf3446339 at https://plus.maths.org/contentSexual statistics
https://plus.maths.org/content/sexual-statistics
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
The Plus Team </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/25_mar_2015_-_1521/icon.png?1427296875" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>David Spiegelhalter's new book <em>Sex by numbers</em> takes a statistical peek into the nation's bedrooms.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div style="float: right; width 400px; margin-left: 10px; margin-bottom: 20px;">
<video width="400" height="225" controls poster="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2015/sex/david.png">
<source src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2015/sex/David_S_small.mp4" type="video/mp4">
<source src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2015/sex/David_S_small.webm" type="video/webm">
Your browser does not support the video tag.
<a href=https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/sexual-statistics" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/sexual-statistics#commentsFP-top-storysocial statisticsstatisticsThu, 02 Apr 2015 10:36:45 +0000mf3446338 at https://plus.maths.org/contentMaths in a minute: What's average?
https://plus.maths.org/content/maths-minute-all-about-averages
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/10_feb_2015_-_1136/icon.jpg?1423568185" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>Why the humble average can be grossly misleading.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>Most people have more than the average number of ears. This might seem odd, but it's true. The vast majority of people have two ears, but the few who have only one or none bring the average down to less than two. It's easy to illustrate this by imagining there are only five people in the world with one of them having only one ear. The average number of ears is </p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/maths-minute-all-about-averages" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/maths-minute-all-about-averages#commentsaveragemedianmodestatisticsTue, 10 Feb 2015 11:34:20 +0000mf3446310 at https://plus.maths.org/contentGood-looking gibberish
https://plus.maths.org/content/good-looking-gibberish
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/29_jan_2015_-_1015/icon.jpg?1422526557" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>How to approximate the English language using maths.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>How would you approximate the English language? In the 1940s the mathematician <a href="http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Shannon.html">Claude Shannon</a> asked himself just this question. Given a machine that can produce strings of letters, how would you set it up so that the strings it produces resemble a real English sentence as closely as possible?</p>
<div class="rightimage" style="width: 262px;"><img src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/news/2015/shannon/shannon.png" width="262" height="324" alt="Claude Shannon"/><p>Claude Shannon.</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/good-looking-gibberish" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/good-looking-gibberish#commentsInformation theorymathematics and languagestatisticsMon, 09 Feb 2015 10:36:57 +0000mf3446307 at https://plus.maths.org/contentThe leaning tower of PISA?
https://plus.maths.org/content/leaning-tower-pisa-0
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/4_dec_2013_-_1655/school_icon.jpg?1386176139" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>This year's PISA results have caused predictable headlines, but do the statistics add up?</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p> According to the latest <a href="http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results.htm">PISA</a> study
Britain's teenagers have dropped out of the top 20 in reading,
maths and science. That's in a ranking of 65
economies from around the world. Media reactions were
predictable (worse than <em>Estonia?!</em>) and so were <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/dec/01/michael-gove-labour-international-league-table">Michael Gove's</a>
(it's the last government's fault), but some were a little more
critical.<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/leaning-tower-pisa-0" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/leaning-tower-pisa-0#commentsmathematics educationstatisticsThu, 05 Dec 2013 16:56:34 +0000mf3445990 at https://plus.maths.org/contentUnderstanding uncertainty: ESP and Bayes
https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-uncertainty-esp-and-bayes
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Kevin McConway </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/5_oct_2012_-_1621/icon_heads.jpg?1349450461" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>In the previous article we looked at a psychological study which claims to provide evidence that certain types of extra-sensory perception exist, using a statistical method called significance testing. But do the results of the study really justify this conclusion?</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<br />
<div align="center" style="margin:auto;width:400px; font-size:15; border: #9a7a9f 2px solid; padding:5px;">This article has been adapted from material on the <a href="http://understandinguncertainty.org/node/1286">Understanding Uncertainty website</a>.</div> <p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-uncertainty-esp-and-bayes" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-uncertainty-esp-and-bayes#commentsbayes theoremconditional probabilityp-valueprobabilitypsychologysignificance teststatisticsunderstanding uncertaintyMon, 15 Oct 2012 15:48:39 +0000mf3445782 at https://plus.maths.org/contentUnderstanding uncertainty: ESP and the significance of significance
https://plus.maths.org/content/esp-and-significance-significance
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Kevin McConway </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/5_oct_2012_-_1548/icon-ball.jpg?1349448511" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>In March 2011 a highly respected psychology journal published a paper claiming to provide evidence
for extra-sensory perception (ESP). The claim was based largely on the
results of a very common statistical procedure called significance testing. The experiments
provide an excellent way into looking at how significance testing
works and at what's problematic about it.</p> </div>
</div>
</div>
<br />
<div align="center" style="margin:auto;width:400px; font-size:15; border: #9a7a9f 2px solid; padding:5px;">This article has been adapted from material on the <a href="http://understandinguncertainty.org/node/1286">Understanding Uncertainty website</a>.</div> <br />
<div class="rightimage" style="width: 313px"><img src="/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2012/esp/psychic.jpg" alt="Psychic" width="313" height="238" />
<p>Is there such a thing as extra-sensory perception? Image: <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PsychicBoston.jpg">Boston</a>.</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/esp-and-significance-significance" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/esp-and-significance-significance#commentsp-valueprobabilitypsychologysignificance teststatisticsunderstanding uncertaintyMon, 15 Oct 2012 14:46:34 +0000mf3445781 at https://plus.maths.org/contentCounting deaths: war as a statistical problem
https://plus.maths.org/content/counting-dead-war-statistical-probelm
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/22_feb_2012_-_1525/icon.jpg?1329924349" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>How many people died? It's one of the first questions asked in a war or violent conflict, but it's one of the hardest to answer. In the chaos of war many deaths go unrecorded and all sides have an interest in distorting the figures. The best we can do is come up with estimates, but the trouble is that different statistical methods for doing this can produce vastly different results . So how do we know how different methods compare?</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p>
How many people died? It's one of the first questions asked in a war
or violent conflict but it's one of the hardest to answer. In the chaos of war many deaths go unrecorded and all sides have an interest in
distorting the figures. </p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/counting-dead-war-statistical-probelm" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/counting-dead-war-statistical-probelm#commentsconfidence intervalstatisticssurveyuncertaintyThu, 23 Feb 2012 09:35:09 +0000mf3445666 at https://plus.maths.org/contentUnderstanding uncertainty: Visualising probabilities
https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-uncertainty-visualising-probabilities
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Mike Pearson and Ian Short </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/19_oct_2011_-_1700/icon_risk.jpg?1319040008" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>Probabilities and statistics: they are everywhere, but they are hard to understand and can be counter-intuitive. So what's the best way of communicating them to an audience that doesn't have the time, desire, or background to get stuck into the numbers? This article explores modern visualisation techniques and finds that the right picture really can be worth a thousand words.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<p><em>Probabilities and statistics: they are everywhere, but they are hard to understand and can be counter-intuitive. So what's the best way of communicating them to an audience that doesn't have the time, desire, or background to get stuck into the numbers? Ian Short explores modern visualisation techniques and finds that the right picture really can be worth a thousand words. </em></p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-uncertainty-visualising-probabilities" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/understanding-uncertainty-visualising-probabilities#commentsCMSprobabilityriskstatisticsuncertaintyunderstanding uncertaintyvisualisationMon, 31 Oct 2011 09:09:35 +0000mf3445572 at https://plus.maths.org/contentAnyone for tennis (and tennis and tennis...)?
https://plus.maths.org/content/anyone-tennis
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Mark A. Thomas </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/19_may_2011_-_1501/icon.jpg?1305813678" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>As the Wimbledon 2011 Championships hove into view, memories will be reawakened of the match of epic proportions that took place last year between the American John Isner and the Frenchman Nicolas Mahut. So just how freaky was their titanic fifth set and what odds might a bookmaker offer for a repeat?</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="rightimage" style="width: 430px"><img src="/sites/plus.maths.org/files/articles/2011/tennis/isner_mahut.jpg" alt="John Isner" width="430" height="181" />
<p>Nicolas Mahut (left, image <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nicolas_Mahut_at_the_2009_Wimbledon_Championships_01.jpg">Bruno Girin</a>) and John Isner (right, image <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_Isner_at_the_2009_US_Open_01.jpg">Charlie Cowens</a>).</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/anyone-tennis" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/anyone-tennis#commentsbernoulli trialgeometric distributionmathematics in sportprobabilitystatisticsFri, 03 Jun 2011 09:10:47 +0000mf3445487 at https://plus.maths.org/contentMeasuring catastrophic risk
https://plus.maths.org/content/misinterpretation-risk-metrics
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Shane Latchman </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/30%20Nov%202010%20-%2011%3A20/icon.jpg?1291116030" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<p>Insurance companies offer protection against rare but catastrophic events like hurricanes or earthquakes. But how do they work out the financial risks associated to these disasters? Shane Latchman investigates.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<h3>The notion of uncertainty</h3>
<p>In the early 19th century, the French mathematician <a href="http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Laplace.html">Pierre-Simon de Laplace</a> wrote of a concept he had been thinking about for some time. The concept became known as <em>Laplace's demon</em> and was a thought experiment which sought to clearly explain the existence of uncertainty. It is described in his <em>Essai Philosophique sur les Probabilités</em> (1814) as:
</p><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/misinterpretation-risk-metrics" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/misinterpretation-risk-metrics#commentsconfidence intervalearthquakesinsurancemathematical modellingprobabilityriskrisk analysisstatisticsThu, 23 Dec 2010 14:36:31 +0000mf3445360 at https://plus.maths.org/contentHow to protect your privacy
https://plus.maths.org/content/how-protect-your-privacy
<br clear="all"></p>
<p>How would you feel if your private health record were revealed to insurance companies or prospective employers? These days our details are kept on all sorts of different databases and cleverly cross-referencing them can reveal intimate information about individuals. So what can be done to protect privacy? We talk to Cynthia Dwork from Microsoft Research, whose talk at the ICM showcased some mathematical tools to keep our details safe.</p><p><a href='http://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/podcast/queries_0.mp3'>How to protect your privacy</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/how-protect-your-privacy#commentsrandomnessstatisticsTue, 24 Aug 2010 10:01:44 +0000mf3445292 at https://plus.maths.org/contentDo you know what's good for you - what's the best medicine?
https://plus.maths.org/content/do-you-know-whats-good-you-whats-best-medicine
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="100" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/20%20Jul%202010%20-%2017%3A01/icon-samples.jpg?1279641694" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-abs-txt">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
How do you judge the risks and benefits of new medical treatments, or of lifestyle choices? With a finite health care budget, how do you decide which treatments should be made freely available on the NHS? Historically, decisions like these have been made on the basis of doctors' individual experiences with how these treatments perform, but over recent decades the approach to answering these
questions has become increasingly rational. </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="pub_date">03/03/2010</div>
<!-- plusimport -->
<!-- END OF FILE: newinclude/news_header.html --><br clear="all"></br>
<!-- #include virtual="../../../include/rightfig.html" -->
<!-- image from itsockphoto -->
<p>How do you judge the risks and benefits of new medical treatments, or of lifestyle choices? With a finite health care budget, how do you decide which treatments should be made freely available on the NHS?<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/do-you-know-whats-good-you-whats-best-medicine" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/do-you-know-whats-good-you-whats-best-medicine#commentsepidemiologymedical statisticsmedicine and healthstatisticsTue, 20 Jul 2010 15:55:17 +0000mf3445262 at https://plus.maths.org/contentClassroom activity: Matching criminals
https://plus.maths.org/content/classroom-activity-matching-criminals
<br class="brclear"/>
<div style="position: relative; left: 50%; width: 70%"><font size="2"><i>Back to the <a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/do-you-know-whats-good-you-unravelling-genetic-secrets">Unravelling genetic secrets package</a><p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/classroom-activity-matching-criminals" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/classroom-activity-matching-criminals#commentsbirthday problemDNADNA evidenceGenesprobabilitystatisticsTue, 13 Jul 2010 11:21:06 +0000mf3445238 at https://plus.maths.org/contentCareer interview: Brazil correspondent, The Economist
https://plus.maths.org/content/os/issue55/interview/index
<div class="field field-type-text field-field-author">
<div class="field-label">author: </div>
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
Marianne Freiberger </div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="field field-type-filefield field-field-abs-img">
<div class="field-items">
<div class="field-item odd">
<img class="imagefield imagefield-field_abs_img" width="100" height="99" alt="" src="https://plus.maths.org/content/sites/plus.maths.org/files/abstractpics/5/12%20Jul%202010%20-%2016%3A15/icon-7.jpg?1278947731" /> </div>
</div>
</div>
<p>If you enjoy your regular dose of <i>Plus</i>, then let us introduce you to the person who's responsible for much of your pleasure. Helen Joyce was <i>Plus</i> Editor from 2002 to 2005 and her vision and pen shaped much of <i>Plus</i> as you see it today. These days Helen works as a journalist for <i>The Economist</i> and is shortly off to São Paulo for a stint as the paper's Brazil Bureau Chief. It's an open-ended assignment, but she expects to spend about four years there.<p><a href="https://plus.maths.org/content/os/issue55/interview/index" target="_blank">read more</a></p>https://plus.maths.org/content/os/issue55/interview/index#comments55career interviewfractalHealth & Societymathematics in the mediastatisticsMon, 12 Jul 2010 15:24:58 +0000mf3445225 at https://plus.maths.org/content