Add new comment

Want facts and want them fast? Our Maths in a minute series explores key mathematical concepts in just a few words.
A basic introduction to the most powerful tools in science and enginnering.
As COP28, the 2023 United Nations Climate Change Conference, kicks off we look at how maths can help understand the climate crisis.
How do you create dramatic film out of mathematics? We find out with writer and director Timothy Lanzone.
Mathematics plays a central role in understanding how infectious diseases spread. This collection of articles looks at some basic concepts in epidemiology to help you understand this fascinating and important field, and set you up for further study.
Find out why the formula we use to work out conditional probabilities is true!
It is the reflector (in another word: mirroring) that makes it impossible to encrypt any letter into itself. I am not sure whether the inventor of Enigma had intentionally made this effect. If he had, the reflector is really a clever way to guarantee this point. But if he hadn't, the only purpose of he introducing the reflector seems to be
making the processes of ciphering and deciphering symmetric on the same keyboard on the same machine, which is an aesthetic of this ciphering machine.
Note also, please: the mechanism of reflector contributes nothing to making the number of combinations larger and thereby making the ciphering more complicated.