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As COP28, the 2023 United Nations Climate Change Conference, kicks off we look at how maths can help understand the climate crisis.

How do you create dramatic film out of mathematics? We find out with writer and director Timothy Lanzone.

Mathematics plays a central role in understanding how infectious diseases spread. This collection of articles looks at some basic concepts in epidemiology to help you understand this fascinating and important field, and set you up for further study.

Find out why the formula we use to work out conditional probabilities is true!

- We talk about a play that explores the fascinating mathematical collaboration between the mathematicians GH Hardy and Srinivasa Ramanujan.

I believe this to be misguided. The notion of wave-particle duality and the abstract mathematical solution to particle location probability is widely misunderstood, often incorrectly associated even by practising nuclear physicists. Experimentation show that there is indeed incidences where atomic particles behave like waves and sometimes like electrons such as in the primary dual slit experiment which exposed the problem. However, the wave-function of any given system ( a particle) is entirely a maths construct which yields usable results. These equations were originally applied to classical systems (sound waves, fluid motions, etc.) but by 'tweaking' them (taking the square of any primary classical wave function) it was realised they are applicable (usable) to describe multiple probabilities of where a particle may be positioned.

What this spawned was the notion of wave function collapse-a concept which has no practical proof and remains nothing more than an abstract. Alternate theories exist (each of about 5 concepts move in and out of 'fashion') which avoid the abstract idea of wave function collapse which itself is only a phrase which really is only applicable to the equation, not to the physical particle. We seem to be a world where the issues involving application of abstract wave functions to describe not-understood physical matter (as modelled by the notion of atoms and atomic structure) are being assigned to the physical systems our equations are good at predicting outcomes and making assumptions that the physical world owns the properties of the equations. They don't. No one on the planet with any real insight would suggest the wave function is 'real'. mol smith