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Until in the year 2010 I still believed that Einstein’s general theory of relativity is correct, but changed at the end of it when I’ve read Lincoln Barnet’s book Universe and Dr. Einstein. In this book I found Einstein’s proving method on his hypothesis ‘deflection of light by the Sun’ isn’t scientific and deeply wrong.
“From these purely theoretical considerations Einstein concluded that light, like any material object, travels in a curve when passing through the gravitational field of a massive body. He suggested that his theory could be put to test by observing the path of starlight in the gravitational field of thesun. Since the stars are invisible by day, there is only one occasion when sun and stars can be seen together in the sky, and that is during an eclipse.
Einstein proposed therefore, that photographs be taken of the stars immediately bordering the darkened face of the sun during an eclipse and compared with photographs of those same stars made at another time. According to his theory, the light from the stars surrounding the sun should be bent inward, toward the sun, in traversing the sun’s gravitational field; hence the images of these stars should appear to observer on earth to be shifted outward from their usual positions in the sky.
Einstein calculated the degree of deflection that should be observed and predicted that for the stars closest to the sun the deviation would be about 1.75 seconds of an arc.
Since he staked his whole General Theory of Relativity on this test, men of science throughout the world anxiously awaited the findings of expeditions which journeyed to equatorial regions to photograph the eclipse of May 29, 1919. When their pictures were developed and examined, the deflection of the starlight in the gravitational field of the sun was found to average 1.64 seconds – a figure as close to perfect agreement with Einstein’s prediction as the accuracy of instruments allowed.“ (Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr.Einstein, London, Victor Gollanez LTD, First Published June 1949, Preface by Albert Einstein, page 78-79 ).
In my understanding, the proving method of general relativity as requested by its founder, Albert Einstein, is not scientific and deeply wrong:
1.Deflection of light is the different angle between true position and apparent position of stars or the different of altitude. In astronomy, true position and apparent position of stars are three dimensionals.
All the photographs be taken of the stars are two dimensionals.
In this case Einstein ignored refraction of light and celestial sphere (Celestial Coordinate System) as the fundamental concepts in astronomy.
2.All the photographs be taken of solar eclipse ( the Sun and stars ) are photographs of the apparent positions of the Sun and stars.
From these photos can not be use to calculate the deflection of light. No one can determine the correct angle of the deflection of light.
In astronomy, all calculations to determine the true position and the apparent position of a certain star at the sky is only applicable at a certain time and at a certain place on which such observation is performed. To compared the photographs taken during an eclipse with photographs of those same stars made at another time is not scientific.
Thus, deflection of light caused by refraction, not gravity. General theory of relativity has been wrong since the beginning, and will be affect to the hipothesis and theories in modern physics.
In the theory of gravity Isaac Newton was right and Albert Einstein was wrong. Moreover, Newton's law of gravity had been self-proven and applied in the modern astronomy. Until now, we still use Newton's theory of gravity.