quantum field theory

How to get massive particles from gold.

After having explored our economic analogy for the force of electromagnetism, let us turn to the weak force.

Current physical theories suggest that beautiful symmetries underly the fundamental particles and forces of nature. We describe those symmetries using an analogy from economics, and even rediscover the famous Higgs boson.

Now let's look at the economic analogy for electromagnetism.

And finally, here is how the famous Higgs boson gets into the picture.

CERN's Large Hadron Collider is one of the few scientific experiments to sparked wide-spread media coverage, particularly with the 2012 announcement of the discovery of the long-sought Higgs boson. So what really goes on at CERN and why the hubbub about the Large Hadron Collider, known as the LHC?

In 2004 Stephen Hawking famously conceded that black holes do not devour all information when they swallow matter — seemingly resolving the black hole information paradox that had perplexed physicists for decades. But some argue that the paradox remains open and we must abandon our simple picture of spacetime to unravel it.

Could the world be simpler than our senses suggest?

By the 1970s physicists had successfully tamed three of the fundamental forces using a sophisticated construct called quantum field theory. The trouble was that the framework seemed to fall apart when you looked at very high or very low energy scales. So how could these be thought of as valid theories? It's a question physicists are still grappling with today.