## history of mathematics

**Runner up in the schools category**Being good at mental arithmetic isn't going to gain you much street cred these days. But, as

**Owen Daniel**explains, not so long ago it was a sure route to fame and fortune — even if you were a horse.

**Runner up in the general public category**. Great minds spark controversy. This is something you'd expect to hear about a great philosopher or artist, but not about a mathematician. Get ready to bin your stereotypes as

**Rebecca Morris**describes some controversial ideas of the great mathematician David Hilbert.

*incompleteness theorem*in 1931, the mathematical community was stunned: using maths he had proved that there are limits to what maths can prove. This put an end to the hope that all of maths could one day be unified in one elegant theory and had very real implications for computer science.

**John W Dawson**describes Gödel's brilliant work and troubled life.

**Isaac Newton**and David Gregory - took place on the campus of Cambridge University. The discussion concerned the

**kissing problem**, but it was to be another 260 years before the problem was finally solved.

**Bill Casselman**writes about the intriguing amateur mathematician Henry Perigal, who took his elegant proof of Pythagoras' Theorem literally to his grave - by having it carved on his tombstone.

**J.V. Field**continues our series on the origins of proof with an examination of Kepler's astronomy.